The FINANCIAL -- PRINCETON, N.J.-- Bristol-Myers Squibb Company on July 5 announced that the European Commission (EC) has expanded the indication for Sprycel (dasatinib) to include the treatment of children and adolescents aged 1 year to 18 years with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP), and to include a powder for oral suspension formulation.
The approval follows a positive opinion issued by the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use on April 26, 2018, and makes Sprycel the first ever tyrosine kinase inhibitor to be approved in a powder formulation for administration in pediatric patients and patients who cannot swallow tablets.
The EC approval is based on data from CA180-226 (NCT00777036), the largest prospective trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of Sprycel in pediatric patients newly diagnosed with CP-CML, and in those resistant to or intolerant of imatinib.
“Treatment options for pediatric patients with CML are limited, as are formulations that correspond with the unique demands of children with cancer,” said Fouad Namouni, M.D., head of development, Oncology, Bristol-Myers Squibb. “Our decision to pursue an expanded indication for Sprycel in this new patient population and as a new formulation is indicative of our commitment to extending the potential of our medicines to address the unmet needs of patients with cancer, regardless of the incidence of the disease.”
In the Phase 2 CA180-226 trial, at minimum two-year follow-up, patients with CP-CML resistant to or intolerant of imatinib who received Sprycel demonstrated a cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rate of 55.2% (95% CI: 36, 74) 3 months into treatment, exceeding the defined threshold of clinical interest (>30%) for the primary endpoint of the cohort and increasing over time to greater than 90% (95% CI: 73, 98) at 24 months. Newly diagnosed patients with CP-CML who received Sprycel as a tablet or as powder for oral suspension achieved a cumulative complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) rate, the primary endpoint in the cohort, of 64% (95% CI: 53, 74) as early as 6 months into treatment, exceeding the defined threshold of clinical interest (>55%) and increasing over time to 94% (95% CI: 87, 98) at 24 months. The secondary endpoint of estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was greater than 75% for patients resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and greater than 90% for patients who received Sprycel as a first-line therapy.
Sprycel was shown to have a comparable safety profile in pediatric patients with CP-CML to that reported in adults with CP-CML. The most commonly reported adverse events in newly diagnosed patients treated with Sprycel were nausea/vomiting (20%), rash (19%) and diarrhea (18%), and in imatinib-intolerant or -resistant patients were nausea/vomiting (31%), myalgia/arthralgia (17%), fatigue (14%) and rash (14%). In this study, there were no reported events of pleural/pericardial effusion, pulmonary edema/hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension related to Sprycel. Study results were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology in March 2018, according to Bristol-Myers Squibb.
The recommended starting dosage for Sprycel in pediatric patients with Ph+ CP-CML is based on body weight. The Sprycel powder for oral suspension (PFOS) is for patients weighing 10 kg or less, or who cannot swallow tablets whole. The recommended dose for both the tablet and PFOS formulations should be recalculated every three months based on changes in body weight, or more often if necessary. Sprycel tablets should be swallowed whole and should not be crushed, cut or chewed. The exposure in patients receiving a crushed tablet is lower than in those swallowing an intact tablet. The Sprycel tablet and PFOS formulations are not bioequivalent. Patients should only switch between the tablet and PFOS formulations at the discretion of a medical professional, who will decide the right formulation and dose based on the patient’s weight.
About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia in which the body produces an uncontrolled number of abnormal white blood cells.1 Chronic myeloid leukemia occurs when pieces of two different chromosomes (chromosomes 9 and 22) break off and attach to each other.2 The newly formed chromosome is called the Philadelphia chromosome, which contains an abnormal gene called the BCR-ABL gene. This gene produces the BCR-ABL protein that signals cells to make too many white blood cells.2 There is no known cause for the genetic change that results in CML.3
Sprycel first received FDA approval in 2006 for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) who are resistant or intolerant to prior therapy including imatinib. At that time, Sprycel also received FDA approval for adults with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are resistant or intolerant to prior therapy. Sprycel is approved and marketed for these indications in more than 60 countries.
Sprycel is also an FDA-approved treatment for adults with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML-CP, and in November 2017, Sprycel received FDA approval for the expanded indication for treatment in pediatric patients with Ph+ CML-CP. The adult indication is approved in more than 50 countries.
SPRYCEL (dasatinib) is indicated for the treatment of adults with:
Newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase
Chronic, accelerated, or myeloid or lymphoid blast phase Ph+ CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib
Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy
SPRYCEL (dasatinib) is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients with: Ph+ CML in chronic phase
Treatment with SPRYCEL is associated with severe (NCI CTCAE Grade 3/4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia, which occur earlier and more frequently in patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL than in patients with chronic phase CML. Myelosuppression was reported in patients with normal baseline laboratory values as well as in patients with pre-existing laboratory abnormalities.
In patients with chronic phase CML, perform complete blood counts (CBCs) every 2 weeks for 12 weeks, then every 3 months thereafter, or as clinically indicated
In patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, perform CBCs weekly for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated
Myelosuppression is generally reversible and usually managed by withholding SPRYCEL temporarily and/or dose reduction
In clinical studies, myelosuppression may have also been managed by discontinuation of study therapy
Hematopoietic growth factor has been used in patients with resistant myelosuppression
SPRYCEL can cause serious and fatal bleeding. In all CML or Ph+ ALL clinical studies, Grade ≥3 central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhages, including fatalities, occurred in <1% of patients receiving SPRYCEL. The incidence of Grade 3/4 hemorrhage, occurred in 5.8% of adult patients and generally required treatment interruptions and transfusions. The incidence of Grade 5 hemorrhage occurred in 0.4% of adult patients. The most frequent site of hemorrhage was gastrointestinal.
Most bleeding events in clinical studies were associated with severe thrombocytopenia
In addition to causing thrombocytopenia in human subjects, dasatinib caused platelet dysfunction in vitro
Concomitant medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants may increase the risk of hemorrhage
SPRYCEL may cause fluid retention. After 5 years of follow-up in the adult randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML study (n=258), grade 3/4 fluid retention was reported in 5% of patients, including 3% of patients with grade 3/4 pleural effusion. In adult patients with newly diagnosed or imatinib resistant or intolerant chronic phase CML, grade 3/4 fluid retention occurred in 6% of patients treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=548). In adult patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL treated with SPRYCEL at the recommended dose (n=304), grade 3/4 fluid retention was reported in 8% of patients, including grade 3/4 pleural effusion reported in 7% of patients. In pediatric patients with chronic phase CML cases of Grade 1 or 2 fluid retention were reported in 10.3% of patients.
Patients who develop symptoms of pleural effusion or other fluid retention, such as new or worsened dyspnea on exertion or at rest, pleuritic chest pain, or dry cough should be evaluated promptly with a chest x-ray or additional diagnostic imaging as appropriate
Fluid retention events were typically managed by supportive care measures that may include diuretics or short courses of steroids
Severe pleural effusion may require thoracentesis and oxygen therapy
Consider dose reduction or treatment interruption
SPRYCEL can cause cardiac dysfunction. After 5 years of follow-up in the randomized newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial in adults (n=258), the following cardiac adverse reactions occurred:
Cardiac ischemic events (3.9% dasatinib vs 1.6% imatinib), cardiac related fluid retention (8.5% dasatinib vs 3.9% imatinib), and conduction system abnormalities, most commonly arrhythmia and palpitations (7.0% dasatinib vs 5.0% imatinib). Two cases (0.8%) of peripheral arterial occlusive disease occurred with imatinib and 2 (0.8%) transient ischemic attacks occurred with dasatinib
Monitor patients for signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac dysfunction and treat appropriately.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of developing PAH in adult and pediatric patients, which may occur any time after initiation, including after more than 1 year of treatment. Manifestations include dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia, and fluid retention. PAH may be reversible on discontinuation of SPRYCEL.
Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of underlying cardiopulmonary disease prior to initiating SPRYCEL and during treatment. If PAH is confirmed, SPRYCEL should be permanently discontinued
SPRYCEL may increase the risk of prolongation of QTc in patients including those with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients with congenital long QT syndrome, patients taking antiarrhythmic medicines or other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high-dose anthracycline therapy
Correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to and during SPRYCEL administration
Severe Dermatologic Reactions
Cases of severe mucocutaneous dermatologic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme, have been reported in patients treated with SPRYCEL.
Discontinue permanently in patients who experience a severe mucocutaneous reaction during treatment if no other etiology can be identified
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)
TLS has been reported in patients with resistance to prior imatinib therapy, primarily in advanced phase disease.
Due to potential for TLS, maintain adequate hydration, correct uric acid levels prior to initiating therapy with SPRYCEL, and monitor electrolyte levels
Patients with advanced stage disease and/or high tumor burden may be at increased risk and should be monitored more frequently
Based on limited human data, SPRYCEL can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Hydrops fetalis, fetal leukopenia and fetal thrombocytopenia have been reported with maternal exposure to SPRYCEL. Transplacental transfer of dasatinib has been measured in fetal plasma and amniotic fluid at concentrations comparable to those in maternal plasma.
Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid pregnancy, which may include the use of effective contraception, during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 30 days after the final dose
Effects on Growth and Development in Pediatric Patients
In pediatric trials of SPRYCEL in chronic phase CML after at least 2 years of treatment, adverse reactions associated with bone growth and development were reported in 5 (5.2%) patients, one of which was severe in intensity (Growth Retardation Grade 3). These 5 cases included cases of epiphyses delayed fusion, osteopenia, growth retardation, and gynecomastia. Of these 5 cases, 1 case of osteopenia and 1 case of gynecomastia resolved during treatment.
No data are available regarding the presence of dasatinib in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed child or the effects of the drug on milk production. However, dasatinib is present in the milk of lactating rats.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing children from SPRYCEL, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with SPRYCEL and for 2 weeks after the final dose
Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: The coadministration with strong CYP3A inhibitors may increase dasatinib concentrations. Increased dasatinib concentrations may increase the risk of toxicity. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant administration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, consider a SPRYCEL dose reduction
Grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of SPRYCEL and should be avoided
Strong CYP3A4 inducers: The coadministration of SPRYCEL with strong CYP3A inducers may decrease dasatinib concentrations. Decreased dasatinib concentrations may reduce efficacy. Consider alternative drugs with less enzyme induction potential. If concomitant administration of a strong CYP3A4 inducer cannot be avoided, consider a SPRYCEL dose increase
St. John’s wort may decrease plasma concentrations of SPRYCEL and should be avoided
Gastric Acid Reducing Agents: The coadministration of SPRYCEL with a gastric acid reducing agent may decrease the concentrations of dasatinib.
Decreased dasatinib concentrations may reduce efficacy.
Do not administer H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors with SPRYCEL. Consider the use of antacids in place of H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors. Administer the antacid at least 2 hours prior to or 2 hours after the dose of SPRYCEL. Avoid simultaneous administration of SPRYCEL with antacids.
The safety data reflects exposure to SPRYCEL at all doses tested in clinical studies (n=2809) including 324 adult patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML, 2388 adult patients with imatinib resistant or intolerant chronic or advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, and 97 pediatric patients with chronic phase CML.
The median duration of therapy in a total of 2712 SPRYCEL-treated adult patients was 19.2 months (range 0–93.2 months). Median duration of therapy in:
1618 adult patients with chronic phase CML was 29 months (range 0–92.9 months)
Median duration for 324 adult patients in the newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial was approximately 60 months
1094 adult patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL was 6.2 months (range 0–93.2 months)
In two non-randomized trials in 97 pediatric patients with chronic phase CML (51 patients newly diagnosed and 46 patients resistant or intolerant to previous treatment with imatinib), the median duration of therapy was 51.1 months (range 1.9 to 99.6 months).
In the newly diagnosed adult chronic phase CML trial, after a minimum of 60 months of follow-up, the cumulative discontinuation rate for 258 patients was 39%.
In the overall population of 2712 adult SPRYCEL-treated patients, 88% of patients experienced adverse reactions at some time and 19% experienced adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation.
Among the 1618 adult SPRYCEL-treated patients with chronic phase CML, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 329 (20.3%) patients.
In the adult newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial, drug was discontinued for adverse reactions in 16% of SPRYCEL-treated patients with a minimum of 60 months of follow-up
Among the 1094 SPRYCEL-treated patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 191 (17.5%) patients.
Among the 97 pediatric subjects, drug-related adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were reported in 1 patient (1%).
Patients ≥65 years are more likely to experience the commonly reported adverse reactions of fatigue, pleural effusion, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and appetite disturbance, and more likely to experience the less frequently reported adverse reactions of abdominal distention, dizziness, pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, hypertension, pulmonary edema and weight decrease, and should be monitored closely, according to Bristol-Myers Squibb.
In adult newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients:
Drug-related serious adverse reactions (SARs) were reported for 16.7% of patients. Serious adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients included pleural effusion (5%)
Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included neutropenia (29%), thrombocytopenia (22%), anemia (13%), hypophosphatemia (7%), hypocalcemia (4%), elevated bilirubin (1%), and elevated creatinine (1%)
In adult patients resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy:
Drug-related SARs were reported for 26.1% of SPRYCEL-treated patients treated at the recommended dose of 100 mg once daily in the randomized dose-optimization trial of patients with chronic phase CML resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy. Serious adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients included pleural effusion (10%)
Grade 3/4 hematologic laboratory abnormalities in chronic phase CML patients resistant or intolerant to prior imatinib therapy who received SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily with a minimum follow up of 60 months included neutropenia (36%), thrombocytopenia (24%), and anemia (13%).
Other grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities included: hypophosphatemia (10%), and hypokalemia (2%)
Among chronic phase CML patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy, cumulative grade 3/4 cytopenias were similar at 2 and 5 years including: neutropenia (36% vs 36%), thrombocytopenia (23% vs 24%), and anemia (13% vs 13%)
Grade 3/4 elevations of transaminases or bilirubin and Grade 3/4 hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia were reported in patients with all phases of CML
Elevations in transaminases or bilirubin were usually managed with dose reduction or interruption
Patients developing Grade 3/4 hypocalcemia during the course of SPRYCEL therapy often had recovery with oral calcium supplementation
In pediatric subjects with Ph+ CML in chronic phase
Drug-related SARs were reported for 14.4% of pediatric patients
In the pediatric studies, the rates of laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the known profile for laboratory parameters in adults
Most common adverse reactions (≥15%) in patients included myelosuppression, fluid retention events, diarrhea, headache, skin rash, hemorrhage, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea, and musculoskeletal pain.