The FINANCIAL -- Employee turnover is a natural part of the workforce life cycle. However, high levels of undesirable turnover or losing people in critical roles can be both costly and disruptive.
Experts estimate that the cost of a lost employee is anywhere from tens of thousands of dollars to 1.5-2.0 times an employee's annual salary. The bottom line for organizations: Turnover, if not systematically studied and understood, can impede achievement of organizational outcomes.
Beyond the tangible costs of turnover, such as the cost of hiring and training an employee, hidden costs affect the employer brand and advocacy. Seventy-one percent of employees use referrals from current employees of an organization to learn about job opportunities, according to Gallup.
Although the data from exit studies are a lagging indicator (i.e., data are typically collected when an employee has already decided to leave an organization), studying exits is important for learning how to keep your other star employees and continually improving your human capital practices.
Because of our partnership on exit surveys with clients across a variety of industries, Gallup has identified a few best practices for effectively designing exit-related studies and using the insights to:
gain clear direction on how to reduce unwanted turnover
create brand ambassadors by making your departing employees feel heard
discover what your competitors are offering your employees
build a bank of exit interview data from across the organization, trend it over time and see if new practices are working
Good Exit Interviews Capture the Whole Picture
To understand how the exiting employee's needs changed during their employment, as well as their key motivators for leaving, exit surveys should tap into both an employee's former and current perceptions of their experience at an organization, as well as gain intel on their attraction to the new organization.
As a starting point, you should gather data on the following areas:
the employee's overall experience of working in the organization (role, team, supervisor, job duties, advancement and development opportunities, and so on)
aspects of the work culture
initial reasons for joining the company they're exiting, as well as reasons they initially considered leaving and then chose to follow through
perceptions of the workplace the employee is joining (if applicable)
The benefits of conducting exit interviews depend on asking the right questions, though. Exit interviewing may seem like something anyone can do, but survey design is easy to bias unintentionally.
Questions need to be refined to minimize bias and to probe to uncover rich insights. The following is an example: "Is your tenure in the organization longer, about the same or shorter than you thought it would be when you first joined the company?"
Findings from this question provide the ability to separately examine information about employees who stayed longer or shorter than expected and uncover the reasons behind those outcomes. At an organization level, aggregating the data and monitoring the ratio of employees staying longer versus shorter than expected can help to identify meaningful organizational trends beyond retention numbers alone.
How to Ask the Right Questions in the Right Way
Exit studies may be conducted in person, via phone interview or via web surveys, depending on budget and scale.
In-person and phone interviews can lead to higher-quality conversations with the employee and deeper insights, compared with a web survey. Especially when it comes to senior-level exits, Gallup recommends a more personal and in-depth option.
Web surveys, on the other hand, can help you collect responses faster and on a larger scale -- and many exiting employees will provide frank comments since they're not speaking directly to a person.
If you want to solicit honest and candid feedback, a direct manager should not conduct the interviews. Using a reputable third party is a best practice for conducting exit survey studies because it protects confidentiality and solicits unbiased responses. Respondents can also choose to waive confidentiality to make data available at an individual level for human resources, leaders, managers and other relevant parties if needed.
The next aspect to consider is timing. Here are the pros and cons of conducting the exit survey or interview before and after an employee leaves the organization:
Conducting exit studies before an employee departs could yield the following benefits:
ensures that responses are not tainted by their perception of working at the new organization
achieves higher participation rates
enables organizations to act upon ethical or critical compliance issues proactively
secures the opportunity to contact the employee via an internal method in case their contact information in the system is not updated or accurate
Conducting exit studies after an employee departs could yield the following benefits:
produces potentially more transparency due to lack of fear of retaliation or consequences
provides the employee ample time to process the exit experience and reasons for leaving
creates the best opportunity to hear an accurate perception of other workplaces since experiences with the new employer can only be obtained once the
employee has begun working at the new organization
allows a longer time period in which to schedule the exit study, as certain industries and workplaces produce challenges associated with having adequate time to reach an employee between the time they give their notice and their last day